One difficult thing about going on maternity leave was how little flexibility I had in the dates. However, this would not have been the case if I were working in France. So I thought I’d do a little comparison of maternity leave in France and Luxembourg, to show how different it can be. This is just the basic legal stuff; collective labor agreements, like for banks or childcare workers, can often give even more time. (For example, my husband gets 3 days off for the birth rather than the standard 2.)
[table] , France, Luxembourg
Length of standard leave, 16 weeks, 16 weeks
Length of standard prenatal leave, 6 weeks, 8 weeks
Flexibility in prenatal leave, 3 weeks (added to postnatal leave), none
Length of standard postnatal leave, 10 weeks, 8 weeks
Extra leave for breastfeeding, none, 4 weeks postnatal
Extra leave for multiples, 34 to 46 weeks total, 4 weeks postnatal (not sure if this is in addition to the 4 weeks for breastfeeding or not)
Extra leave when not first child, 26 weeks total if third+ child, none
Full salary paid by government, yes (up to a limit of about 2500 a month), yes (up to a limit of about 9600 a month)
Leave for the father following birth, 11 consecutive days during the first 4 months, 2 days [/table]
So while overall, my leave is a little bit longer because I work in Luxembourg, things are much different in France for multiples, fathers, and people who have more than one child already. I think having the option to use most of the leave after the birth is a very good idea, though I suppose it compensates in a way for the lack of specific “breastfeeding” leave in France.
There is also the choice in France to shorten the leave to 8 weeks (2 before, 6 after), though I have no idea if many women choose this option. And 8 weeks is the minimum if you want to be paid for the leave. So what happens if you just keep working? Does your employer not have to pay you? Can they refuse to let you work? I have a feeling these are not really situations that happen very often, since you’re paid your full salary, but since my issue is with flexibility, these are questions I wonder about.
Parental leave is slightly more complicated, and the law in France will change this year starting July 1st. I don’t think it’s to be more like Luxembourg specifically (I have a feeling the rest of the country is not quite as aware of Luxembourg as we are in Lorraine), but they’re trying to encourage more men to take time off. Right now in France about 3% of fathers take parental leave, and they’re hoping it’ll go up to 20% in the next few years. Luxembourg is already at about 24%. Since the laws in France are (always) complex, there are obviously some additional points I don’t cover here, like multiples, single parent families, and crèches. Again, this is just to give an idea of the differences between the two countries.
[table] , France (new 2014 law), Luxembourg
Amount of leave first child, 12 months (6 months each parent full- or part-time 50-80%), 12-24 months (6 months full-time or 12 months part-time 50% each parent)
When leave is taken, anytime after end of maternity leave, one parent must take their leave immediately following the maternity leave or the other parent loses their leave
Both parents take leave at the same time, yes (part-time), yes (part-time and only if alternating schedules so child is always with one parent and not daycare/nanny)
Amount of leave more than one child, 3 years maximum IF second parent takes 6 months (otherwise only 2.5 years), same as for 1 child
Leave can be taken until child is . . ., 3 years old, 5 years old
Compensation from government, a few hundred a month (depends on income and if part- or full-time), around 900 part-time and 1800 full-time (fixed amounts independent of income)[/table]
We’re definitely happier with the way parental leave is set up in Luxembourg, since for us, that’s more important than the maternity leave. You’re only pregnant 9 months, but then there’s a baby to take care of . . . forever!! (The panic has started as my due date approaches!) We talked about both doing part-time at the same time, but the scheduling was a little too complicated.
While nothing was stopping men from taking the time in France, most don’t because they make more money and there are cultural stereotypes that factor in as well. So I’m not sure that just offering 6 months to the second parent will really change anything, and people aren’t particularly happy with the new limit of 2.5 years if the second parent doesn’t take the 6 months.
While the limits in Luxembourg seem to encourage men to take time, it’s still not a 50/50 split, and it’s definitely a question of money/culture as well. The compensation probably seems quite generous compared to France, but it’s basically the minimum wage in Luxembourg, so financially it’s not always possible for both parents to take the time off. It’s still better than in France though; the system is so complicated for figuring out how much you’d get per month, and once you make over a certain amount you don’t get anything, so after a certain point in your career it would be difficult to take the time without changing your lifestyle (like a baby doesn’t do that already?).
Part-time is generally a better option in both countries, since you’d have half your pay from your employer (or even up to 80% in France) and compensation from the government as well, so financially there might be less of a loss. It’s the same math future parents around the world have to do, even in countries like Denmark that have 52 weeks of paid maternity/parental leave, since individual situations vary and governments do impose limits to compensation. I don’t think any country gives you 100% of your normal salary for months and months of leave. (Nor should they, in my opinion, if part of the purpose is to make sure women have the same career opportunities as men.)
I should mention that for both maternity and parental leave in France and Luxembourg, there are conditions like having worked for a while (in general for maternity leave and at the company specifically for parental leave) and paid into the health care/social security system for a certain amount of time, which makes sense. Parental leave is always optional, so not everyone takes advantage of it, but I personally just love having options. So hopefully these comparisons help show the options parents have when choosing between working in France or Luxembourg!